S: WHO – http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/disease_watch/syphilis/en/ (last access: 29 October 2015); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7716/ (last access: 29 October 2015); DORLAND.
N: 1. From Greek, trepein, to turn, nema, thread.
2. An organism of the genus Treponema. adj., adj trepone´mal.
3. Treponemes are helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, 6 to 15 μm long and 0.1 to 0.2 μm wide. They have an outer membrane which surrounds the periplasmic flagella, a peptidoglycan-cytoplasmic membrane complex, and a protoplasmic cylinder. Multiplication is by binary transverse fission. Treponemes have not yet been cultured in vitro.
4. Treponema includes the agents of syphilis (T. pallidum pallidum) and yaws (T. pallidum pertenue). Borrelia includes several species transmitted by lice and ticks and causing relapsing fever (B. recurrentis and others) and Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi) in humans. Spirochaeta are free-living nonpathogenic inhabitants of mud and water.
S: 1. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/treponematosis – Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier. (last Access: 29 Ocober 2015). 2. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Treponema (last access: 29 October 2015) – Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health; Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. 3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7716/ (last access: 29 October 2015). 4. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/Treponema (last access: 29 October 2015).
S: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7716/ (last access: 29 October 2015)
CR: syphilis, treponematosis.