S: https://www.genome.gov/27552603/transcription-and-translation/ (last access: 19 July 2016); http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/molecules/transcribe/ (last access: 19 July 2016).
N: 1. mid-14c., “removal of a saint’s body or relics to a new place,” also “rendering of a text from one language to another,” from Old French translacion “translation” of text, also of the bones of a saint, etc. (12c.) or directly from Latin translationem (nominative translatio) “a carrying across, removal, transporting; transfer of meaning,” noun of action from past participle stem of transferre.
2. The synthesis of protein from RNA. Hereditary information is contained in the nucleotide sequence of DNA in a code. The coded information from DNA is copied faithfully during transcription into a form of RNA known as messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into chains of amino acids. Amino acid chains are folded into helices, zigzags, and other shapes to form proteins and are sometimes associated with other amino acid chains.
3. Translation is the process by which a protein is synthesized from the information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). During translation, an mRNA sequence is read using the genetic code, which is a set of rules that defines how an mRNA sequence is to be translated into the 20-letter code of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The genetic code is a set of three-letter combinations of nucleotides called codons, each of which corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal. Translation occurs in a structure called the ribosome, which is a factory for the synthesis of proteins.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=translation (last access: 19 July 2016). 2. EncBrit – https://global.britannica.com/science/translation-genetics (last access: 19 July 2016). 3. http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/translation-rna-translation-173 (last access: 19 July 2016).
CR: amino acid, DNA, gene, protein, ribosome, RNA, transcription, translation.