endoscopy
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GC: n

S: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/endoscopy.html (last access: 3 September); http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/endoscopy/Pages/how-is-it-perfomed.aspx (last access: 12 October 2015).

N: 1. 1861, from endo- (word-forming element meaning “inside, within, internal,” comb. form of Greek endon “in, within,” literally “in the house of,” from en “in”, see en- (2), + base of domos “house”, see domestic) + -scopy (word-forming element meaning “viewing, examining, observing,” from Modern Latin -scopium, from Greek -skopion, from skopein “to look at, examine”, see scope (1)).
2. Medical examination of the interior of the body, usually through a natural body opening, by the insertion of a flexible, lighted optical shaft or open tube. Instruments used include the endoscope, a flexible tube for examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, and the bronchoscope, a flexible tube for examination of the bronchial tubes.
3. Endoscopy is a way of looking inside the body using a flexible tube that has a small camera on the end of it. This instrument is called an endoscope. There are many types of endoscopes. Each one is named according to the organs or areas they are used to examine. For example:

  • Arthroscope: Used to look directly in the joints
  • Bronchoscope: Used to look in the airways and lungs
  • Cystoscope: Used to view the inside of the bladder
  • Laparoscope: Used to look directly at the ovaries, appendix, or other abdominal organs

An endoscope is passed through a natural body opening or small cut. For example, a laparoscope is inserted through small surgical cuts in the pelvic or belly area. In men, a urinary tract endoscope is passed through the opening of the urethra.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=endoscopy&searchmode=none (last access: 3 September 2014). 2. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/topic/endoscopy (last access: 14 November 2013). 3. MEDLP – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003338.htm (last access: 14 November 2013).

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CR: colonoscopy