S: WHO – https://bit.ly/2BH4Z2F (last access: 28 November 2018); PNAS – https://bit.ly/2PaDF06 (last access: 28 November 2018).
N: 1. 1940s: from trans- ‘across’ + Latin ferrum ‘iron’ + -in.
2. Protein (beta globulin) in blood plasma that transports iron from the tissues and bloodstream to the bone marrow, where it is reused in the formation of hemoglobin.
3. It can be found fixed to the surface of developing red blood cells, transferrin frees iron directly into the cell.
4. Human beings have 14 different types of transferrin, but all are believed to be determined at a single genetic locus. They are named by letters of the alphabet; the commonest is called C.
5. Low transferrin can impair hemoglobin production (since to make hemoglobin, you have to have iron) and so lead to anemia. Low transferrin can be due to poor production of transferrin by the liver (where it’s made) or excessive loss of transferrin through the kidneys into the urine. Many conditions including infection and malignancy can depress transferrin levels. The transferrin is abnormally high in iron deficiency anemia.
6. Hereditary absence of transferrin is called atransferrinemia. It is characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis (iron deposition) in the heart and liver. The iron damage to the heart can lead to heart failure. The anemia is typically microcytic and hypochromic (the red blood cells are abnormally small and pale). The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It is due to mutation of both of a person’s transferrin genes. Atransferrinemia can be effectively treated by plasma infusions of transferrin.
S: 1.OD – https://bit.ly/2zwNDnR (last access: 28 November 2018). 2 to 4. EncBrit –https://bit.ly/2QojMYp (last access: 28 November 2018). 5 & 6. MN – https://bit.ly/2Pa6t8Y (last access: 28 November 2018).
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/2BIdACk (last access: 28 November 2018)