S: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/ribosomes-transcription-and-translation-14120660 (last access: 20 July 2016); https://www.genome.gov/27552603/transcription-and-translation/ (last access: 20 July 2016).
N: 1. 1590s, from Middle French transcription, from Late Latin transcriptionem (nominative transcriptio), noun of action from past participle stem of transcribere. Biological sense is from 1961. Related: Transcriptional; transcriptionist.
2. The synthesis of RNA from DNA. Genetic information flows from DNA into protein, the substance that gives an organism its form. This flow of information occurs through the sequential processes of transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to protein).
3. During transcription, only one strand of DNA is usually copied. This is called the template strand, and the RNA molecules produced are single-stranded messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The DNA strand that would correspond to the mRNA is called the coding or sense strand. In eukaryotes (organisms that possess a nucleus) the initial product of transcription is called a pre-mRNA.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=transcription (last access: 20 July 2016). 2 & 3. EncBrit – https://global.britannica.com/science/transcription-genetics (last access: 20 July 2016).
CR: DNA, RNA, translation (2).