N: 1. early 14c., from Old French sauvete “safety, safeguard; salvation; security, surety,” earlier salvetet (11c., Modern French sauveté), from Medieval Latin salvitatem (nominative salvitas) “safety,” from Latin salvus (see safe (adj.)). Meaning “trigger-lock on a gun” is attested from 1881.
As a North American football position, first recorded 1931. As a type of score against one’s own team, 1881. Safety-valve, which diminishes the risk of explosion, is from 1797; figurative sense recorded from 1818. Safety-net in literal sense (in machinery) by 1916, later of aerial circus performances (1920s); figurative use by 1950. Safety-first as an accident-prevention slogan first recorded 1873.
2. In the fields of Security and Occupational Health and Safety, state in which the risk of harm (to persons) or damage is limited to an acceptable level.
3. In the field of Nuclear, the definition of safety as usually employed is the achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards. (IAEA definition)
Nuclear security is the means and ways of preventing, detecting, and responding to theft, sabotage and unauthorized access to or illegal transfer of nuclear material and other radioactive substances, as well as their associated facilities. (IAEA definition).
4. In the field of Nuclear, the two notions (“safety” and “security”) are different but have in common some aspects and for some features a balanced and complementary approach between the two is necessary. For example, air plane crash in the design of an NPP used to consider the fall of the engine of a big aircraft and now since the 9/11, other additional measures are implemented in existing plants and new designs include the crash of a complete large aircraft on the containment. The measures taken for the 2 aspects are either technical or administrative ones. For security, the aspect of avoiding nuclear material theft or diversion is essential. For safety ensuring the main functions of the installation in all circumstances and maintaining the confinement of fission products is the main objective.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=afety (last access: 10 January 2016). 2. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 10 January 2016). 3 & 4. http://www.win-europe.org/faq?tmpl=component&faqid=28 (last access: 10 January 2016).