S: LearnWHR – (last access: 12 November 2020); The Guardian – (last access: 12 November 2020).

N: 1. 1560s, “ecclesiastical province under a patriarch; church government by patriarchs,” from Latinized form of Greek patriarkhia, from patriarkhēs “male chief or head of a family”. Meaning “system of society or government by fathers or elder males of the community” is recorded from 1630s. The OED says that patriarch is from the late 12c., patriarke, “one of the Old Testament fathers,” progenitors of the Israelites, from Old French patriarche (11c.) and directly from Late Latin patriarcha (Tertullian), from Greek patriarkhēs “chief or head of a family,” from patria “family, clan,” from pater “father”+ arkhein “to rule”. Also used as an honorific title of certain bishops of the highest rank in the early Church, notably those of Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. The meaning “the father and ruler of a family” is by 1817.
2. According to the European Institute for Gender Equality patriarchy is a a system of social structures and practices, in which men govern, oppress and exploit women.
3. We can find another explaination of what patriarchy is in TERMIUM PLUS:
Strictly speaking, a patriarchy is a social system in which family systems or entire societies are organized around the idea of father-rule.
4. Although patriarchy is a well-known and used term, it can usually be seen on its adjetival form “patriarchal”. It is used to talk about patriarchal violence, patriarchal system, patriarchal power, patriarchal oppression, patriarchal ideology and so on.
5. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the book The Creation of Patriarchy written by Austrian-born American feminist, historian and woman’s history author Gerda Lerner (1920-2013).

S: 1. OED – ; (last access: 12 November 2020). 2. EIGE – (last access: 12 November 2020). 3. TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 12 November 2020). 4. LearnWHR – (last access: 12 November 2020). 5. GB – (last access: 12 November 2020).


CR: domestic violence, ecofeminism, equal opportunities, gender-based violence, social justice.