S: Wired – https://www.wired.co.uk/article/digital-humanitarianism (last access: 16 June 2020); The Guardian – https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/06/difference-between-emoji-and-emoticons-explained (last access: 16 June 2020).
N: 1. by 1994, apparently from “emotion” (1570s, “a (social) moving, stirring, agitation,” from Middle French émotion (16c.), from Old French emouvoir “stir up” (12c.), from Latin emovere “move out, remove, agitate,” from assimilated form of ex “out” + movere “to move”) + “icon” (also ikon, 1570s, “image, figure, picture,” also “statue,” from Late Latin icon, from Greek eikon “likeness, image, portrait; image in a mirror; a semblance, phantom image;” in philosophy, “an image in the mind,” related to eikenai “be like, look like,” which is of uncertain origin; the specific Eastern Church sense is attested from 1833 in English; computing sense first recorded 1982).
2. Emoticon, glyph used in computer-mediated communications that is meant to represent a facial expression in order to communicate the emotional state of the author. When the Internet was entirely text-based, between the late 1960s and the early 1990s, emoticons were rendered in ASCII and were read sideways, as the “smiley” : – ) indicates. The word emoticon comes from a contraction of the words emotional icon.
3. A symbol or an image in a message that expresses the mood of its author.
4. The term “emoticon” literally means “an icon that represents emotion.” Emoticons grew out of the need to display feeling in the two-dimensional, online, written world. Examples: Common emoticons include: : ) means happy, : ( means sad.
5. Unlike emojis, emoticons are not standardized and can often be created using punctuation marks.
6. emoticon; smiley: terms standardized by ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission.
7. emoji: A small digital image that is part of a standardized set and is used to express an idea or an emotion in electronic communications.
The word “emoji” comes from the Japanese “e” (picture) and “moji” (written character).
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=emoticon; https://www.etymonline.com/word/emotion; https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=icon (last access: 16 June 2020). 2. EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/topic/emoticon (last access: 16 June 2020). 3 to 7. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=emoticon&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs; https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=emoji&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 16 June 2020).
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=emoticon&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 16 June 2020)