congenital
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GC: adj

S: WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/congenital_anomalies/en/ (last access: 22 May 2015); http://www.geneticalliance.org/diseases (last access: 31 October 2013).

N: 1. Congenital is usually confused with genetic or inherited. Sometimes the three characteristics coincide, but they do not mean the same thing.
A congenital disease occurs at birth or even before birth.
2. A genetic disease or disorder is the result of changes, or mutations, in an individual’s DNA. A mutation is a change in the letters (DNA sequence) that make up a gene.
3. An inherited disorder is an illness or disease that is derived from genetic aberration.
4. Collocations: congenital anomalies, congenital defect, congenital deformity, congenital disease, congenital heart defect.

S: 1. http://www.mmh.org.tw/imsc/imsc_english/i_congenital_disease.htm (last access: 31 October 2013). 2. http://www.geneticalliance.org/diseases (last access: 31 October 2013). 3. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inherited+disorder (last access: 31 October 2013). 4. http://collocations.enacademic.com/3612/congenital (last access: 22 May 2015); FCB.

SYN: inborn, innate.

S: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&term=Genetic+Diseases,+Inborn (last access: 31 October 2013); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19078985 (last access: 31 October 2013).

SYN: Some authors don’t consider “inborn” and “congenital” as synonyms.

S: TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 31 October 2013)

CR: anomaly