S: http://www.redcross.ca/article.asp?id=9246&tid=030 (last access: 16 July 2012); http://www.bullying.co.uk/ (last access: 1 September 2014).
N: 1. bullying (n.): 1802, verbal noun from bully (v.).
bully (v.): 1710, from bully (n.). Related: Bullied; bullying.
2. bullying, intentional harm-doing or harassment that is directed toward vulnerable targets and typically repeated. Bullying encompasses a wide range of malicious aggressive behaviours, including physical violence, verbal mockery, threats, ostracism, and rumours spread either orally or by other means of communication, such as the Internet.
3. Bullying is hurtful behaviour, usually repeated over a long period of time. It can happen at and outside of school, such as on the way to school or in clubs and groups.
4. Bullying can also take place online. Sometimes called cyberbullying, it can happen through social networking websites or on mobile phones. Because it can occur 24 hours a day, seven days a week, a child may feel that there is no escape.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=bullying&searchmode=none (last access: 3 September 2014). 2. EncBrit – https://global.britannica.com/topic/bullying (last access: 1 September 2014). 3 & 4. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/worried-about-a-child/online-advice/bullying/bullying-a_wda87098.html (last access: 1 September 2014).