alcohol
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GC: n

S: WHO – https://www.who.int/health-topics/alcohol#tab=tab_1 (last access: 8 April 2020); NHS – https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/alcohol-misuse/ (last access: 8 April 2020).

N: 1. 1540s (early 15c. as alcofol), “fine powder produced by sublimation,” from Medieval Latin alcohol “powdered ore of antimony,” from Arabic al-kuhul “kohl,” the fine metallic powder used to darken the eyelids, from kahala “to stain, paint.” The al- is the Arabic definite article, “the.”
Paracelsus (1493-1541) used the word to refer to a fine powder but also a volatile liquid. By 1670s it was being used in English for “any sublimated substance, the pure spirit of anything,” including liquids. Sense of “intoxicating ingredient in strong liquor” is first recorded 1753, short for alcohol of wine, which was extended to “the intoxicating element in fermented liquors.”
2. A colorless volatile flammable liquid, C2H5OH, synthesized or obtained by fermentation of sugars and starches and widely used, either pure or denatured, as a solvent and in drugs, cleaning solutions, explosives, and intoxicating beverages. Also called ethanol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol.
3. Alcoholic beverage, any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled spirit, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol (CH3CH2OH), as an intoxicating agent. A brief treatment of alcoholic beverages follows. For full treatment, see alcohol consumption.
4. Collocations:
– Adj.: excess/excessive; pure.
– Quant.: drop, unit; level.
Verb + noun: consume, drink; avoid, keep off, not touch, stay off; abuse.
Noun + noun: content, level; consumption, intake, use; abuse, addiction, misuse; problem.
– Phrases: low alcohol (= containing very little alcohol) a low alcohol beer.
5. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention, among many others, the movie 28 Days (2000) directed by Betty Thomas.

S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=alcohol (last access: 6 February 2020). 2. TFD – https://www.thefreedictionary.com/alcohol (last access: 6 February 2020). 3. EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/topic/alcoholic-beverage (last access: 6 April 2020). 4. OCD – http://www.freecollocation.com/search?word=alcohol (last access: 21 June 2020). 5. Soberbliss – https://sober-bliss.com/best-movies-about-alcohol-addiction/ (last access: 21 June 2020).

SYN: alcoholic beverage

S: EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/topic/alcoholic-beverage (last access: 6 April 2020)

CR: addiction, alcoholic, alcoholism, fermentation.